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Guide On How To Access The Silk Road 3.0 (3.1)
Terrorism , Volume 4, No. In Search of a Vanished China. Huseyn Aliyev, Emil A. The central government talks of reducing industrial overcapacity, cutting debt and transitioning to a new, innovation-driven economy, but provincial leaders, under pressure to meet economic targets, seem unable to abandon the old playbook. It also brought an end to the dominance of the Islamic Caliphate over world trade. Part of the data about eastern Asia provided by Muslim geographers of the 10th century actually goes back to Sogdian data of the period — and thus shows the survival of links between east and west.

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Silk Road transmission of Buddhism

This development also resulted in the extinction of the local Tocharian Buddhist culture in the Tarim Basin during the 8th century. The Silk Road transmission between Eastern and Indian Buddhism thus came to an end in the 8th century, on one hand because Islam in Central Asia repressed Buddhism along the Silk Road itself, but also because Buddhism in both India and China were in decline by that time.

From the 9th century onward, therefore, the various schools of Buddhism which survived began to evolve independently of one another. The vigorous Chinese culture progressively absorbed Buddhist teachings until a strongly Chinese particularism developed. Central Asian missionary efforts along the Silk Road were accompanied by a flux of artistic influences, visible in the development of Serindian art from the 2nd to the 11th century CE in the Tarim Basin , modern Xinjiang.

Highly sinicized forms of this syncretism can also be found on the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin, such as in Dunhuang. Silk Road artistic influences can be found as far as Japan to this day, in architectural motifs or representations of Japanese gods see Greco-Buddhist art. The Book of Han has given rise to discussions on the maritime or overland transmission of Buddhism, and the origins of Buddhism in India or China.

In 65 CE, Emperor Ming decreed that anyone suspected of capital crimes would be given an opportunity for redemption, and King Ying sent thirty rolls of silk. The biography quotes Ming's edict praising his younger brother:. The king of Chu recites the subtle words of Huanglao, and respectfully performs the gentle sacrifices to the Buddha.

After three months of purification and fasting, he has made a solemn covenant or: What dislike or suspicion from Our part could there be, that he must repent of his sins? The Buddhist community at Pencheng survived, and around CE, the warlord Zhai Rong built a huge Buddhist temple, "which could contain more than three thousand people, who all studied and read Buddhist scriptures.

Apocryphal texts give divergent accounts about the imperial envoys sent to India, their return with two Buddhist monks, Sanskrit sutras including Sutra of Forty-two Chapters carried by white horses, and establishing the White Horse Temple. Since the Book of Later Han present two accounts of how Buddhism entered Han China, generations of scholars have debated whether monks first arrived via the maritime or overland routes of the Silk Road.

The overland route hypothesis, favored by Tang Yongtong, proposed that Buddhism disseminated eastward through Yuezhi and was originally practiced in western China, at the Han capital Luoyang where Emperor Ming established the White Horse Temple c. The view that Buddhism was transmitted to China by the sea route comparatively lacks convincing and supporting materials, and some arguments are not sufficiently rigorous [ After entering into China, Buddhism blended with early Daoism and Chinese traditional esoteric arts and its iconography received blind worship.

Zhang Qian noted only that: The people ride elephants into battle. As for myself, here is what I have heard: This kingdom is even more flourishing than China. The seasons are in harmony. Saintly beings descend and congregate there. Great Worthies arise there. Strange and extraordinary marvels occur such that human reason is suspended. By examining and exposing the emotions, one can reach beyond the highest heavens.

There is a current tradition that Emperor Ming dreamed that he saw a tall golden man the top of whose head was glowing.

He questioned his group of advisors and one of them said: His body is sixteen chi high 3. Then Ying, the king of Chu [a dependent kingdom which he ruled CE], began to believe in this Practice, following which quite a few people in the Middle Kingdom began following this Path. Later on, Emperor Huan [ CE] devoted himself to sacred things and often made sacrifices to the Buddha and Laozi.

To commemorate the end of this particular road, we recently put together a random, purely-for-kicks highlights reel of sorts which condenses ten months, ten countries, and ten thousand kilometers of adventure into roughly ten minutes of footage. For now, though, we just wanted to share the wild joy of riding the open road with you, as thanks for cheering us on along the way.

Wishing you all happy trails…. If you missed the broadcasts, you can now listen to audio clips of the interviews at the links below, excerpted from the full shows for your convenience:. Friend, we are traveling together. Throw off your tiredness. Ten months ago, in January, Mel and I lurched off the European shore of Istanbul, Turkey with overburdened bikes and quaking legs.

Just a few days ago, in late October, we pedaled into Leh, a small city barnacled onto the Himalayan mountains in northern India. Then finally, drawn back to mountains like moths to flame, we looped north through India to finish on the crampon edge of the Himalayan winter in Ladakh. An expedition entirely self-supported, to the chagrin of our legs and lungs, and, barring a few unavoidable train and bus rides due to illness, safety concerns, or visa constraints, a journey entirely self-propelled, with no camel caravan in sight.

Take that, Marco Polo! After nearly two glorious months in Tajikistan, biking the Tajik-Afghan border and exploring the potential for transboundary cooperation in the Pamir mountain borderlands, we spent roughly 36 hours transiting through Kyrgyzstan before riding into Xinjiang in western China, where all our mad Silk Road biking adventures began five years ago.

Originally we intended to ride from Kashgar into western Tibet, retracing our route from , and exploring the Mount Kailash transboundary protected area — our fourth case study of the expedition. But then we learned the western road into Tibet was closed for construction. There are places you can get to by road, and there are places you can only get to by being on the road, a state of mind you can carry, with concerted effort, to almost any context.

Even a train swaying drunkenly on its tracks across Kazakhstan as men sway drunkenly through it, past aisles of people stacked in sleeper bunks like produce on shelves — some fresh, some overripe, some way past expiration. In the world of strict plans and fixed agendas, detours are just distractions. But on the Cycling Silk expedition, detours often prove the destination — and not just because we frequently get lost.

So we steered south, away from the Black Sea, and began climbing onto the Kars Plateau, swapping heavy rain for heavier snow along the way. The roads grew so slick with ice we had to work twice as hard to go half as fast.

Not only do these texts veto their membership in NATO, but they exclude mutually profitable partnerships for these countries with the European Union and other Western institutions, constrain their domestic development, and encourage the suppression of civil liberties by warning of fictitious Western plots to change their regimes under the guise of democracy promotion and human rights. Moscow has stated that among its defense and security priorities for , Central Asia and the South Caucasus will top its agenda.

Kavkaz , the main strategic military exercise of the year, will take place in the Southern Military District MD , while Tsentr occurred in Central MD with among its vignettes a rehearsal of intervention in Central Asia. Surprisingly in this context, the Defense Ministry plans to restructure the st Base in Tajikistan from divisional to brigade status.

The purpose of the special operation was to break the backbone of the Muslim Unity group, a purportedly militant Shiite organization. The context and implications of the Nardaran events have received little attention in Western media, despite the concerns raised both within and outside the region about Azerbaijan finding itself on the brink of religiously inspired civil unrest.

In early November, John Kerry made a long overdue trip to Central Asia, becoming the first Secretary of State to visit all five Central Asian countries in one diplomatic tour. His agenda focused on reassuring the regional governments that the United States cares about their concerns, specifically Afghanistan and religious extremism. Kerry also highlighted U. He further developed bilateral cooperation with each Central Asian government. It will require sustained follow-through by the current and next U.

A number of initiatives have combined to make the development of continental transport and trade across the heartland of Eurasia a reality rather than a mere vision.

Some of these have been external, while many have been internal to the region. Yet if Europe works with Central Asian states, it stands to benefit greatly from this process. This would involve work to make the transport corridors more attuned to market logic; to promote the development of soft infrastructure; to pay attention to the geopolitics of transport and support the Caucasus and Caspian corridor; and not least, to look ahead to the potential of linking Europe through Central Asia not just to China, but also to the Indian subcontinent.

Huseyn Aliyev, Emil A. The minister claimed that all the 11 targets, located around 1, kilometers from the warships, were destroyed over two days. Russian authorities and pro-regime media have considered the strikes a big success. While information soon resurfaced that some cruise missiles had landed on Iranian soil, the fact that the October strike is definite proof of the failed attempts to turn the landlocked water basin into a demilitarized zone has received less attention.

As a first manifestation of this dialogue platform, Kerry made a Central Asian tour in early November. Russian authorities stated that the maneuvers aimed to help CSTO members develop means to effectively move airborne forces and other troops to conflict zones, including in Central Asia.

Russia aims to establish itself as a key player from the Caspian Basin in the east, via the Black Sea, to the Eastern Mediterranean. Fourteen political parties competed, and six were able to pass the national and regional thresholds to win seats. Moscow is actively utilizing the risks and threats stemming from the ISIS to boost its clout in the near and far abroad. Rather than resulting from external factors, as the regime has argued, the recent violence in Tajikistan erupted from within the state itself.

Elites within the Tajik state continually compete for political influence and economic gain. These struggles occasionally break out into violence. Ironically, such conflicts are actually useful for the regime. They allow it to legitimize a purge of potentially disloyal members and a crackdown on other opponents.

Many have pointed to this process as a sign of the changing paradigm of the regional resistance, which is being transformed into — or absorbed by — the global jihadist insurgency. But these assumptions can be challenged by a look at the internal dynamics, the distance from key hotbeds of jihadist violence, and the limits of the North Caucasian insurgency.

It adopted a Development Strategy towards and admitted India and Pakistan as full members. Uzbekistan and Tajikistan are currently confronted with a host of shared challenges ranging from the threat of radical Islam to socioeconomic instability, while their bilateral relationship is still constrained by unsettled disputes from the past. Central Asia is a key region that many believe has fallen into the crosshairs of the terrorist group calling itself the Islamic State ISIS.

Local governments are gravely concerned about returning fighters and possible ISIS infiltration in the region, and foreign powers, especially neighboring Russia and China, have expressed their deep concerns. This grim picture, however, obscures a more complex, and perhaps more accurate, story. Might the specter of ISIS have less to do with its on-the-ground ability to destabilize the region and more to do with the geopolitical concerns of those who are stating these threats?

With the recent death of its leader and the decisions by numerous field commanders in Dagestan and Chechnya to disassociate themselves with the organization, analysts are wondering if the Caucasus Emirate can endure.

It is, however, only the latest in a long line of such paradigms to take root in the region, competing with the Caucasus Emirate, Chechen nationalism and other forms of ethnic separatism.

The slowing Russian economy suffered a triple shock in the form of Western economic sanctions, falling oil prices, and the plummeting Russian ruble in , resulting in a negative impact on Central Asian states. In addition, tighter migration regulations in Russia, in force since early , are having an effect on the flow of migration from Central Asia, particularly from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

These three countries rely heavily on remittances from their migrant workers in Russia. His death came at a time of profound decline of the North Caucasian jihadists, coupled with the ongoing split in their ranks as an increasing number of fighters and insurgent leaders turn to the Islamic State IS.

Upcoming months will show whether the North Caucasus insurgency, and particularly its Dagestani branch, will become dominated by IS sympathizers and ink up with the global jihad, or remain a largely local endeavor. Recent months have been hectic for Dagestani jihadists. Since mid, this hotbed of the North Caucasian insurgency has witnessed a gradual split, with numerous Dagestan-based jihadist commanders pledging oath bayat to the leader of the Islamic State, Abu-Bakr al-Baghdadi.

Given the North Caucasian and Dagestani jamaats' weakening capacity, the ongoing developments in Dagestan could break the unity in this last bastion of the regional insurgency.

The end of and early have witnessed a notable reduction in conflict-related violence across the North Caucasus. With the continuous departure of Islamist volunteers from that Russian region to the Middle East, in the number of casualties, among both militants and security forces, have decreased by more than half, compared to the previous year.

While observers associate the current de-escalation of violence with the outflow of large numbers of North Caucasian youth to join Islamic State IS and with internal conflicts within the North Caucasus Islamist underground Caucasus Emirate , reasons behind the recent decline of insurgency-related activities are likely to be more complex. The recent attacks in Paris against the studio of satirical journal Charlie Hebdo, known for its caricatures of Muhammad, have sparked heated debates in Dagestan.

While Dagestanis have primarily focused on evaluating the implications of this single case of lethal violence, their debates have unfolded against the background of increasingly frequent attacks carried out by members of local jihadi groups — jamaats — against targets deemed anti-Islamic according to Salafi dogma.

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The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and mackledaddy.tk was central to cultural interaction between the regions for many centuries. The Silk Road refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting East Asia and Southeast Asia with East Africa, West Asia and Southern Europe.. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk . First contacts. Buddhism was brought to China via the Silk mackledaddy.tkst monks travelled with merchant caravans on the Silk Road, to preach their new religion. The First Lady introduces Silk Road Dance Company at the historic March 11, White House Nowruz Celebration. “I think it’s so fitting that we are holding this celebration here today because, one of my favorite things about the White House is how it .