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By now the BBC under Reith's leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified monopoly broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.

The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, and with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC suddenly became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis.

The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently.

Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives largely in a manner of its own choosing. The resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment, or that the BBC had banned broadcasts from the Labour Party and delayed a peace appeal by the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Reith personally announced the end of the strike which he marked by reciting from Blake's " Jerusalem " signifying that England had been saved. While the BBC tends to characterise its coverage of the general strike by emphasising the positive impression created by its balanced coverage of the views of government and strikers, Jean Seaton , Professor of Media History and the Official BBC Historian has characterised the episode as the invention of "modern propaganda in its British form".

Impartial news was not necessarily an end in itself. The BBC did well out of the crisis, which cemented a national audience for its broadcasting, and it was followed by the Government's acceptance of the recommendation made by the Crawford Committee —26 that the British Broadcasting Company be replaced by a non-commercial, Crown-chartered organisation: The British Broadcasting Corporation came into existence on 1 January , and Reith — newly knighted — was appointed its first Director General.

To represent its purpose and stated values, the new corporation adopted the coat of arms , including the motto "Nation shall speak peace unto Nation". British radio audiences had little choice apart from the upscale programming of the BBC. Reith, an intensely moralistic executive, was in full charge. His goal was to broadcast "All that is best in every department of human knowledge, endeavour and achievement The preservation of a high moral tone is obviously of paramount importance.

There was no paid advertising on the BBC; all the revenue came from a tax on receiving sets. Highbrow audiences, however, greatly enjoyed it. Boat races were well covered along with tennis and horse racing, but the BBC was reluctant to spend its severely limited air time on long football or cricket games, regardless of their popularity. The success of broadcasting provoked animosities between the BBC and well established media such as theatres, concert halls and the recording industry.

By , the BBC complained that the agents of many comedians refused to sign contracts for broadcasting, because they feared it harmed the artist "by making his material stale" and that it "reduces the value of the artist as a visible music-hall performer". On the other hand, the BBC was "keenly interested" in a cooperation with the recording companies who "in recent years Experimental television broadcasts were started in , using an electromechanical line system developed by John Logie Baird.

Limited regular broadcasts using this system began in , and an expanded service now named the BBC Television Service started from Alexandra Palace in , alternating between an improved Baird mechanical line system and the all electronic line Marconi-EMI system. The superiority of the electronic system saw the mechanical system dropped early the following year.

Television broadcasting was suspended from 1 September to 7 June , during the Second World War , and it was left to BBC Radio broadcasters such as Reginald Foort to keep the nation's spirits up. Concerts were broadcast from the Corn Exchange; the Trinity Chapel in St Paul's Church, Bedford was the studio for the daily service from to , and, in the darkest days of the war in , the Archbishops of Canterbury and York came to St Paul's to broadcast to the UK and all parts of the world on the National Day of Prayer.

BBC employees during the war included George Orwell who spent two years with the broadcaster. There was a widely reported urban myth that, upon resumption of the BBC television service after the war, announcer Leslie Mitchell started by saying, "As I was saying before we were so rudely interrupted Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh Competition to the BBC was introduced in , with the commercial and independently operated television network of ITV. As a result of the Pilkington Committee report of , in which the BBC was praised for the quality and range of its output, and ITV was very heavily criticised for not providing enough quality programming, [38] the decision was taken to award the BBC a second television channel, BBC2 , in , renaming the existing service BBC1.

BBC2 used the higher resolution line standard which had been standardised across Europe. Starting in , a series of pirate radio stations starting with Radio Caroline came on the air and forced the British government finally to regulate radio services to permit nationally based advertising-financed services.

In response, the BBC reorganised and renamed their radio channels. The Home Service became Radio 4 offering news, and non-musical content such as quiz shows, readings, dramas and plays. As well as the four national channels, a series of local BBC radio stations were established in , including Radio London. In , the BBC's teletext service, Ceefax , was introduced, created initially to provide subtitling, but developed into a news and information service.

In , BBC staff went on strike just before the Christmas of that year, thus blocking out the transmission of both channels and amalgamating all four radio stations into one. In the late s, the BBC began a process of divestment by spinning off and selling parts of its organisation. The archive was sold to Brian Deutsch and is now owned by Getty Images. The BBC Research Department has played a major part in the development of broadcasting and recording techniques.

In recent decades, a number of additional channels and radio stations have been launched: Radio 5 was launched in , as a sports and educational station, but was replaced in , with Radio 5 Live , following the success of the Radio 4 service to cover the Gulf War.

The new station would be a news and sport station. The channel had an educational aim, which was modified later on in its life to offer documentaries. In , several television and radio channels were reorganised. In addition to the television channels, new digital radio stations were created: The following few years resulted in repositioning of some of the channels to conform to a larger brand: During this decade, the corporation began to sell off a number of its operational divisions to private owners; BBC Broadcast was spun off as a separate company in , [46] and in The Hutton Inquiry and the subsequent Report raised questions about the BBC's journalistic standards and its impartiality.

This led to resignations of senior management members at the time including the then Director General, Greg Dyke. On 20 October , the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced that the television licence fee would be frozen at its current level until the end of the current charter in Under the new royal charter instituted , the corporation must publish an annual report to Ofcom, outlining its plans and public service obligations for the next year.

In its —18 report, released July , the BBC announced plans to "re-invent" its output to better compete against commercial streaming services such as Netflix. These plans included increasing the diversity of its content on television and radio, a major increase in investments towards digital children's content, and plans to make larger investments in other nations of the United Kingdom besides England to "rise to the challenge of better reflecting and representing a changing UK" [64] [65].

The BBC is a statutory corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen from April by the BBC Board and regulated by Ofcom. Regulation of the BBC is now the responsibility of Ofcom.

The Board consists of the following members. The Executive Committee is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the broadcaster. Consisting of senior managers of the BBC, the Committee meets once per month and is responsible for operational management and delivery of services within a framework set by the Board, and is chaired by the Director-General, currently Tony Hall.

The Director-General is chief executive and from editor-in-chief. The Corporation has the following in-house divisions covering the BBC's output and operations: From as early as the s until the s, MI5 , the British domestic intelligence service, engaged in vetting of applicants for BBC positions, a policy designed to keep out persons deemed subversive.

This relationship garnered wider public attention after an article by David Leigh and Paul Lashmar appeared in The Observer in August , revealing that MI5 had been vetting appointments, running operations out of Room in Broadcasting House. An association with one of these groups could result in a denial of a job application. In October , the BBC announced that it would stop the vetting process, except for a few people in top roles, as well as those in charge of Wartime Broadcasting Service emergency broadcasting in event of a nuclear war and staff in the BBC World Service.

Such a licence is required to legally receive broadcast television across the UK , the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. No licence is required to own a television used for other means, or for sound only radio sets though a separate licence for these was also required for non-TV households until The cost of a television licence is set by the government and enforced by the criminal law.

A discount is available for households with only black-and-white television sets. As a result of the UK Government's recent spending review, an agreement has been reached between the government and the corporation in which the current licence fee will remain frozen at the current level until the Royal Charter is renewed at the beginning of The revenue is collected privately by Capita, an outside agency, and is paid into the central government Consolidated Fund , a process defined in the Communications Act Additional revenues are paid by the Department for Work and Pensions to compensate for subsidised licences for eligible overyear-olds.

The licence fee is classified as a tax, [83] and its evasion is a criminal offence. Since , collection and enforcement of the licence fee has been the responsibility of the BBC in its role as TV Licensing Authority.

The BBC carries out surveillance mostly using subcontractors on properties under the auspices of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act and may conduct searches of a property using a search warrant. The licence fee has, however, attracted criticism. It has been argued that in an age of multi stream, multi-channel availability, an obligation to pay a licence fee is no longer appropriate.

The BBC's use of private sector company Capita Group to send letters to premises not paying the licence fee has been criticised, especially as there have been cases where such letters have been sent to premises which are up to date with their payments, or do not require a TV licence. The BBC uses advertising campaigns to inform customers of the requirement to pay the licence fee.

Past campaigns have been criticised by Conservative MP Boris Johnson and former MP Ann Widdecombe for having a threatening nature and language used to scare evaders into paying. The majority of the BBC's commercial output comes from its commercial arm BBC Worldwide who sell programmes abroad and exploit key brands for merchandise.

A significantly large portion of the BBC's income is spent on the corporation's Television and Radio services with each service having a different budget based upon their content. Renovation of Broadcasting House began in , and was completed in This facility has been host to a number of famous guests and programmes through the years, and its name and image is familiar with many British citizens.

The major part of this plan involves the demolition of the two post-war extensions to the building and construction of an extension [] designed by Sir Richard MacCormac of MJP Architects. This move will concentrate the BBC's London operations, allowing them to sell Television Centre , which is expected to be completed by As well as the two main sites in London Broadcasting House and White City , there are seven other important BBC production centres in the UK, mainly specialising in different productions.

Open since October , and containing 7 new studios, Roath Lock [] is notable as the home of productions such as Doctor Who and Casualty.

BBC Scotland , based in Pacific Quay, Glasgow is a large producer of programmes for the network, including several quiz shows. In England, the larger regions also produce some programming. The BBC also operates several news gathering centres in various locations around the world, which provide news coverage of that region to the national and international news operations.

He also stated that supplier accountability had been strengthened following some high-profile technology failures which had taken place during the partnership with Siemens. Digital television is now entrenched in the UK, with analogue transmission completely phased out as of December BBC One is a regionalised TV service which provides opt-outs throughout the day for local news and other local programming. These variations are more pronounced in the BBC "Nations", i.

Northern Ireland , Scotland and Wales , where the presentation is mostly carried out locally on BBC One and Two, and where programme schedules can vary greatly from that of the network. BBC Two was also the first channel to be transmitted on lines in , then carry a small-scale regular colour service from BBC One would follow in November It is also the first multi-genre channel to come entirely from Scotland with almost all of its programmes made in Scotland. The service was initially only available via satellite but since June has been available to viewers in Scotland on Freeview and cable television.

It launched on 9 June , following a month trial of the broadcasts. It became a proper channel in , and screened HD programmes as simulcasts of the main network, or as repeats.

In these countries digital and cable operators carry a range of BBC channels. This online streaming ability came about following experiments with live streaming, involving streaming certain channels in the UK. In December , the BBC completed a digitisation exercise, scanning the listings of all BBC programmes from an entire run of about 4, copies of the Radio Times magazine from the first, , issue to later listings already being held electronically , the "BBC Genome project", with a view to creating an online database of its programme output.

The BBC has ten radio stations serving the whole of the UK, a further six stations in the "national regions" Wales , Scotland , and Northern Ireland , and 40 other local stations serving defined areas of England. These are BBC Radio 1 , offering new music and popular styles and being notable for its chart show; BBC Radio 2 , playing Adult contemporary , country and soul music amongst many other genres; BBC Radio 3 , presenting classical and jazz music together with some spoken-word programming of a cultural nature in the evenings; BBC Radio 4 , focusing on current affairs, factual and other speech-based programming, including drama and comedy; and BBC Radio 5 Live , broadcasting hour news, sport and talk programmes.

These stations supplement and expand on the big five stations, and were launched in BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra sisters 5 Live and offers extra sport analysis, including broadcasting sports that previously were not covered. BBC Radio 6 Music offers alternative music genres and is notable as a platform for new artists.

Following the change to Radio 4 Extra, the service has dropped a defined children's strand in favour of family-friendly drama and comedy. In addition, new programmes to complement Radio 4 programmes were introduced such as Ambridge Extra , and Desert Island Discs revisited.

The final station is the BBC Asian Network , providing music, talk and news to this section of the community. This station evolved out of Local radio stations serving certain areas, and as such this station is available on Medium Wave frequency in some areas of the Midlands. BBC Radio Bristol , county or region e. BBC Radio Solent covering the central south coast. A further six stations broadcast in what the BBC terms "the national regions": Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. There is no BBC local radio station, however, in the Isle of Man, partly because the island has long been served by the popular independent commercial station, Manx Radio , which predates the existence of BBC Local Radio.

BBC services in the dependencies are financed from television licence fees which are set at the same level as those payable in the UK, although collected locally. For a worldwide audience, the BBC World Service provides news, current affairs and information in 28 languages, including English, around the world and is available in over capital cities. It is broadcast worldwide on shortwave radio, DAB and online and has an estimated weekly audience of million, and its websites have an audience of 38 million people per week.

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