Network 5 Internet access

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Internet access
The situation is worsened when hospitals or other buildings necessary to disaster response lose their connection. Fibre-optic communication , while only recently being used in premises and to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling broadband Internet access by making transmission of information at very high data rates over longer distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. This is fair in the sense that all users that experience congestion receive less bandwidth, but it can be frustrating for customers and a major problem for ISPs. Archived from the original on December 19, The Internet developed from the ARPANET , which was funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US — but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities and the research arms of many technology companies. This is NOT abusive. Shopping for a new car this weekend?

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Network 3 = Internet Access

Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals , computers , and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web. Various technologies, at a wide range of speeds have been used by Internet service providers ISPs to provide this service.

Internet access was once rare, but has grown rapidly. The Internet developed from the ARPANET , which was funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US — but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities and the research arms of many technology companies.

In the early to mids, most Internet access was from personal computers and workstations directly connected to local area networks or from dial-up connections using modems and analog telephone lines. Initially, dial-up connections were made from terminals or computers running terminal emulation software to terminal servers on LANs.

These dial-up connections did not support end-to-end use of the Internet protocols and only provided terminal to host connections.

The introduction of network access servers supporting the Serial Line Internet Protocol SLIP and later the point-to-point protocol PPP extended the Internet protocols and made the full range of Internet services available to dial-up users; although slower, due to the lower data rates available using dial-up. Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just broadband, is simply defined as "Internet access that is always on, and faster than the traditional dial-up access" [8] [9] and so covers a wide range of technologies.

Broadband connections are typically made using a computer's built in Ethernet networking capabilities, or by using a NIC expansion card. Most broadband services provide a continuous "always on" connection; there is no dial-in process required, and it does not interfere with voice use of phone lines. In the s, the National Information Infrastructure initiative in the U. In there were just under million dial-up subscriptions in the 34 OECD countries [12] and fewer than 20 million broadband subscriptions.

By , broadband had grown and dial-up had declined so that the number of subscriptions were roughly equal at million each. Newer technologies include VDSL and optical fibre extended closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fibre-optic communication , while only recently being used in premises and to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling broadband Internet access by making transmission of information at very high data rates over longer distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology.

In areas not served by ADSL or cable, some community organizations and local governments are installing Wi-Fi networks. Wireless and satellite Internet are often used in rural, undeveloped, or other hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not readily available.

In addition to access from home, school, and the workplace Internet access may be available from public places such as libraries and Internet cafes , where computers with Internet connections are available. Some libraries provide stations for physically connecting users' laptops to local area networks LANs. Wireless Internet access points are available in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing.

Some access points may also provide coin-operated computers. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk ", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone ".

Many hotels also have public terminals, usually fee based. Coffee shops, shopping malls, and other venues increasingly offer wireless access to computer networks, referred to as hotspots , for users who bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA.

These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A Wi-Fi hotspot need not be limited to a confined location since multiple ones combined can cover a whole campus or park, or even an entire city can be enabled. Additionally, Mobile broadband access allows smart phones and other digital devices to connect to the Internet from any location from which a mobile phone call can be made, subject to the capabilities of that mobile network.

Dial-up connections generally require the dedicated use of a telephone line. Data compression can boost the effective bit rate for a dial-up modem connection to from V. Broadband technologies supply considerably higher bit rates than dial-up, generally without disrupting regular telephone use. The higher data rate dial-up modems and many broadband services are "asymmetric"—supporting much higher data rates for download toward the user than for upload toward the Internet.

Data rates, including those given in this article, are usually defined and advertised in terms of the maximum or peak download rate. In practice, these maximum data rates are not always reliably available to the customer.

Network bottlenecks may exist at points anywhere on the path from the end-user to the remote server or service being used and not just on the first or last link providing Internet access to the end-user. Users may share access over a common network infrastructure. Since most users do not use their full connection capacity all of the time, this aggregation strategy known as contended service usually works well and users can burst to their full data rate at least for brief periods.

However, peer-to-peer P2P file sharing and high-quality streaming video can require high data-rates for extended periods, which violates these assumptions and can cause a service to become oversubscribed, resulting in congestion and poor performance. The TCP protocol includes flow-control mechanisms that automatically throttle back on the bandwidth being used during periods of network congestion. This is fair in the sense that all users that experience congestion receive less bandwidth, but it can be frustrating for customers and a major problem for ISPs.

In some cases the amount of bandwidth actually available may fall below the threshold required to support a particular service such as video conferencing or streaming live video—effectively making the service unavailable. When traffic is particularly heavy, an ISP can deliberately throttle back the bandwidth available to classes of users or for particular services.

This is known as traffic shaping and careful use can ensure a better quality of service for time critical services even on extremely busy networks. However, overuse can lead to concerns about fairness and network neutrality or even charges of censorship , when some types of traffic are severely or completely blocked.

An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signaling interruptions. Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the submarine cable disruption. Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links.

Land cables are also vulnerable, as in when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia. On April 25, , due to a combination of human error and software bug, an incorrect routing table at MAI Network Service a Virginia Internet service provider propagated across backbone routers and caused major disruption to Internet traffic for a few hours. When the Internet is accessed using a modem , digital data is converted to analog for transmission over analog networks such as the telephone and cable networks.

LANs may be wired or wireless. Ethernet is the name of the IEEE Wi-Fi networks are built using one or more wireless antenna called access points. Many "modems" provide the additional functionality to host a LAN so most Internet access today is through a LAN [ citation needed ] , often a very small LAN with just one or two devices attached. And while LANs are an important form of Internet access, this raises the question of how and at what data rate the LAN itself is connected to the rest of the global Internet.

The technologies described below are used to make these connections. The term broadband includes a broad range of technologies, all of which provide higher data rate access to the Internet. The following technologies use wires or cables in contrast to wireless broadband described later. Dial-up Internet access uses a modem and a phone call placed over the public switched telephone network PSTN to connect to a pool of modems operated by an ISP. The modem converts a computer's digital signal into an analog signal that travels over a phone line's local loop until it reaches a telephone company's switching facilities or central office CO where it is switched to another phone line that connects to another modem at the remote end of the connection.

Operating on a single channel, a dial-up connection monopolizes the phone line and is one of the slowest methods of accessing the Internet. Dial-up is often the only form of Internet access available in rural areas as it requires no new infrastructure beyond the already existing telephone network, to connect to the Internet. Multilink dial-up provides increased bandwidth by channel bonding multiple dial-up connections and accessing them as a single data channel.

This inverse multiplexing option was briefly popular with some high-end users before ISDN, DSL and other technologies became available. Diamond and other vendors created special modems to support multilinking. Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN is a switched telephone service capable of transporting voice and digital data, as well as one of the oldest Internet access methods. ISDN has been used for voice, video conferencing, and broadband data applications.

Its use peaked in the late s before the availability of DSL and cable modem technologies. Leased lines are dedicated lines used primarily by ISPs, business, and other large enterprises to connect LANs and campus networks to the Internet using the existing infrastructure of the public telephone network or other providers.

Delivered using wire, optical fiber , and radio , leased lines are used to provide Internet access directly as well as the building blocks from which several other forms of Internet access are created. A T1 line carries 24 voice or data channels 24 DS0s , so customers may use some channels for data and others for voice traffic or use all 24 channels for clear channel data.

T-carrier lines require special termination equipment that may be separate from or integrated into a router or switch and which may be purchased or leased from an ISP.

At lower transmission rates data can also be transferred via an electrical interface. Thus an OC-3c will carry three OC-1 The "c" at the end of the OC labels stands for "concatenated" and indicates a single data stream rather than several multiplexed data streams. Cable Internet provides access using a cable modem on hybrid fiber coaxial wiring originally developed to carry television signals.

Either fiber-optic or coaxial copper cable may connect a node to a customer's location at a connection known as a cable drop. In a cable modem termination system , all nodes for cable subscribers in a neighborhood connect to a cable company's central office, known as the "head end. Broadband cable access tends to service fewer business customers because existing television cable networks tend to service residential buildings and commercial buildings do not always include wiring for coaxial cable networks.

Cable networks regularly provide encryption schemes for data traveling to and from customers, but these schemes may be thwarted. Unlike dial-up, DSL can operate using a single phone line without preventing normal use of the telephone line for voice phone calls. DSL uses the high frequencies, while the low audible frequencies of the line are left free for regular telephone communication.

DSL originally stood for "digital subscriber loop". In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction, i. However, the maximum data rate is achieved at a range of about meters and performance degrades as distance and loop attenuation increases. The differences between the methods have mostly to do with just how close to the end user the delivery on fiber comes.

All of these delivery methods are similar to hybrid fiber-coaxial HFC systems used to provide cable Internet access. The use of optical fiber offers much higher data rates over relatively longer distances.

Most high-capacity Internet and cable television backbones already use fiber optic technology, with data switched to other technologies DSL, cable, POTS for final delivery to customers. Australia began rolling out its National Broadband Network across the country using fiber-optic cables to 93 percent of Australian homes, schools, and businesses.

Similar efforts are underway in Italy, Canada, India, and many other countries see Fiber to the premises by country. Power-line Internet , also known as Broadband over power lines BPL , carries Internet data on a conductor that is also used for electric power transmission. Because these systems use parts of the radio spectrum allocated to other over-the-air communication services, interference between the services is a limiting factor in the introduction of power-line Internet systems. The IEEE P standard specifies that all power-line protocols must detect existing usage and avoid interfering with it.

Power-line Internet has developed faster in Europe than in the U. Data signals cannot pass through the step-down transformers used and so a repeater must be installed on each transformer. In Europe, it is more common for a somewhat larger transformer to service larger clusters of from 10 to houses. Thus a typical U. Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM and Frame Relay are wide-area networking standards that can be used to provide Internet access directly or as building blocks of other access technologies.

For example, many DSL implementations use an ATM layer over the low-level bitstream layer to enable a number of different technologies over the same link. Wireless broadband is used to provide both fixed and mobile Internet access with the following technologies. Satellite Internet access provides fixed, portable, and mobile Internet access. In the northern hemisphere, satellite antenna dishes require a clear line of sight to the southern sky, due to the equatorial position of all geostationary satellites.

In the southern hemisphere, this situation is reversed, and dishes are pointed north. When other switching and routing delays are added and the delays are doubled to allow for a full round-trip transmission, the total delay can be 0. This latency is large when compared to other forms of Internet access with typical latencies that range from 0. Long latencies negatively affect some applications that require real-time response, particularly online games, voice over IP , and remote control devices.

GEO satellites do not cover the Earth's polar regions. Lower altitudes allow lower latencies and make real-time interactive Internet applications more feasible.

LEO systems include Globalstar and Iridium. Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access delivered through mobile phone towers to computers, mobile phones called "cell phones" in North America and South Africa, and "hand phones" in Asia , and other digital devices using portable modems. Some mobile services allow more than one device to be connected to the Internet using a single cellular connection using a process called tethering.

The modem may be built into laptop computers, tablets, mobile phones, and other devices, added to some devices using PC cards , USB modems , and USB sticks or dongles , or separate wireless modems can be used. New mobile phone technology and infrastructure is introduced periodically and generally involves a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak data rates, new frequency bands, wider channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz becomes available.

These transitions are referred to as generations. The first mobile data services became available during the second generation 2G. The download to the user and upload to the Internet data rates given above are peak or maximum rates and end users will typically experience lower data rates. WiMAX was originally developed to deliver fixed wireless service with wireless mobility added in By focusing the radio signal using a directional antenna where allowed by regulations , In addition, compared to hard-wired connectivity, there are security risks unless robust security protocols are enabled ; data rates are usually slower 2 to 50 times slower ; and the network can be less stable, due to interference from other wireless devices and networks, weather and line-of-sight problems.

With the increasing popularity of unrelated consumer devices operating on the same 2. If the service provider holds the necessary spectrum license, it could also reconfigure various brands of off the shelf Wi-Fi hardware to operate on its own band instead of the crowded unlicensed ones. Using higher frequencies carries various advantages:. There are a number of companies that provide this service. In some regions, notably in rural areas, the length of the copper lines makes it difficult for network operators to provide high bandwidth services.

Deploying multiple adjacent Wi-Fi access points is sometimes used to create city-wide wireless networks. Grassroots efforts have also led to wireless community networks widely deployed at numerous countries, both developing and developed ones. Rural wireless-ISP installations are typically not commercial in nature and are instead a patchwork of systems built up by hobbyists mounting antennas on radio masts and towers , agricultural storage silos , very tall trees, or whatever other tall objects are available.

Where radio spectrum regulation is not community-friendly, the channels are crowded or when equipment can not be afforded by local residents, free-space optical communication can also be deployed in a similar manner for point to point transmission in air rather than in fiber optic cable. Packet radio connects computers or whole networks operated by radio amateurs with the option to access the Internet.

Note that as per the regulatory rules outlined in the HAM license, Internet access and e-mail should be strictly related to the activities of hardware amateurs. The term, a tongue-in-cheek play on net work as in Internet or Ethernet , refers to the wearing of sneakers as the transport mechanism for the data.

For those who do not have access to or can not afford broadband at home, downloading large files and disseminating information is done by transmission through workplace or library networks, taken home and shared with neighbors by sneakernet. There are various decentralized, delay tolerant peer to peer applications which aim to fully automate this using any available interface, including both wireless Bluetooth, Wi-Fi mesh, P2P or hotspots and physically connected ones USB storage, ethernet, etc.

Sneakernets may also be used in tandem with computer network data transfer to increase data security or overall throughput for big data use cases. Innovation continues in the area to this day, for example AWS has recently announced Snowball, and bulk data processing is also done in a similar fashion by many research institutes and government agencies.

Internet access is limited by the relation between pricing and available resources to spend. Current Internet access prices exceed the available resources by large in many countries. Dial-up users pay the costs for making local or long distance phone calls, usually pay a monthly subscription fee, and may be subject to additional per minute or traffic based charges, and connect time limits by their ISP. Though less common today than in the past, some dial-up access is offered for "free" in return for watching banner ads as part of the dial-up service.

Some Wireless community networks continue the tradition of providing free Internet access. Fixed broadband Internet access is often sold under an "unlimited" or flat rate pricing model, with price determined by the maximum data rate chosen by the customer, rather than a per minute or traffic based charge. Per minute and traffic based charges and traffic caps are common for mobile broadband Internet access. Internet services like Facebook , Wikipedia and Google have built special programs to partner with mobile network operators MNO to introduce zero-rating the cost for their data volumes as a means to provide their service more broadly into developing markets.

With increased consumer demand for streaming content such as video on demand and peer-to-peer file sharing, demand for bandwidth has increased rapidly and for some ISPs the flat rate pricing model may become unsustainable.

Some ISPs estimate that a small number of their users consume a disproportionate portion of the total bandwidth. In response some ISPs are considering, are experimenting with, or have implemented combinations of traffic based pricing, time of day or "peak" and "off peak" pricing, and bandwidth or traffic caps.

Others claim that because the marginal cost of extra bandwidth is very small with 80 to 90 percent of the costs fixed regardless of usage level, that such steps are unnecessary or motivated by concerns other than the cost of delivering bandwidth to the end user.

In Nashville exceeding the Gbyte cap mandates a temporary purchase of 50 Gbytes of additional data. Despite its tremendous growth, Internet access is not distributed equally within or between countries.

The gap between people with Internet access and those without is one of many aspects of the digital divide. Government policies play a tremendous role in bringing Internet access to or limiting access for underserved groups, regions, and countries. For example, in Pakistan, which is pursuing an aggressive IT policy aimed at boosting its drive for economic modernization, the number of Internet users grew from , 0. Access to computers is a dominant factor in determining the level of Internet access.

Internet access has changed the way in which many people think and has become an integral part of peoples economic, political, and social lives. Access to the Internet grew from an estimated 10 million people in , to almost 40 million in , to million in , and to 2.

There were roughly 0. In developing countries mobile broadband is often the only access method available. Traditionally the divide has been measured in terms of the existing numbers of subscriptions and digital devices "have and have-not of subscriptions". For example, "the massive diffusion of narrow-band Internet and mobile phones during the late s" increased digital inequality, as well as "the initial introduction of broadband DSL and cable modems during — increased levels of inequality".

As shown by the Figure, during the mids, communication capacity was more unequally distributed than during the late s, when only fixed-line phones existed. The most recent increase in digital equality stems from the massive diffusion of the latest digital innovations i. In the United States, billions of dollars have been invested in efforts to narrow the digital divide and bring Internet access to more people in low-income and rural areas of the United States.

Anonymous "Go to the intert access icon on the task bay On your desktop, go to the Intert Access icon on the task bay. How can i remove network 4 internet access on my screen? You should download a text free or any texting app from the app store. I have internet access in the plane but not a network connection with my iphone. Download tweakker from play store via wireless from your phone.

How do i get internet access on huawei u was vodafone now open to tesco network but cant get access to it? Anonymous "The connection says network 4 internet access Why does my conecction say network 4 internet access? I hooked a new wireless router up yesterday and I cant get my laptop to connect, but my iphone and ipod will, the connection says network 4 internet access. This discussion closely relates to:. I am a plusnet user and have just upgraded my pc to Windows 7 but find the internet connection says I m on Network 4 - how do I get plusnet back?

Ive had no emails or anything to let me know of any changes. Anonymous "And have our network called malin our computer started running super slow tonight and We are with Xplorenet and have our network called Malin Our computer started running super slow tonight and I looked on internet connection We are with Xplorenet and have our network called Malin Our computer started running super slow tonight and I looked on internet connections and it says Network 4 Connected Malin secured.

This makes me think that we are connected to whatever Network 4 means What do you think. I want to remove Network 4 Internet access on my screen? How do I remove Network 4 Internet access on my screen. Anonymous "And i did not think i was connected to a network as such What does Network 4 Internet Access at the bottom right corner of my screen mean? I have not noticed this before and I did not think I was connected to a network as such.

However I do have wifi so that people staying in the lower apartment of my house can use the internet. I have no problem getting onto the internet, although my computer seems to have slowed down recently. Anonymous "Internet access pop up box on the bottom right of my screen How do I get rid of the Network 4 Internet Access pop up box on the bottom right of my screen.

Network 4 Internet access message box on the bottom of page. With the little window of network 4, my computer worked great. But without it the computer runs slow and actually I miss the little window. How did I come to get it in the first place? Can you help us by answering one of these related questions? We need your help!

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Internet access is ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, mobile devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web. Nov 27,  · I request a definition of the term "Network 4" Internet Access. First, My machine is a custom: Windows 7 x64 6Gb Memory I am connected to an in-home network: Many PC's Several Laptops Several Cell phones which are internet ready I have a display box on the lower right-hand corner of my monitor above the system tray. Network 4 internet access appear in the bottom right side of my scrt]eenthey just appears about two days again, don`t know why. Asked by: Cecily: my laptop that has 3g dongle internet access and want my samsung tablet to access internet. connects to hotspot not internet; Network 4 internet access.